Building 32bit applications with mingw-w64 and CMake

The mingw-w64 provides ready-to-use packages with GCC for Windows. The toolchain is by default targeting the 64bit Windows architecture. It is possible to build 32bit binaries by using the -m32 option on the command line.

The toolchain can be easily integrated with CMake, however it gets more complicated when trying to build a 32bit application from CMake. After some trial and error, reading the documentation and debugging the CMake modules, I found out a simple solution that works for me:

    set(CMAKE_C_FLAGS "${CMAKE_C_FLAGS} -m32")

    project(MyProject ...)


    find_library(gcc_lib libgcc_s_sjlj-1.dll)
    find_library(cpp_lib libstdc++-6.dll)
    find_library(pthread_lib libwinpthread-1.dll)

Some notes:

    • According to the CMake documentation, CMake should set “FIND_LIBRARY_USE_LIB32_PATHS” automatically because MinGW requires it, but as of now (mingw-7.2.0 and CMake 3.12), it is not the case. So set it explicitly. Without this, find_library() will happily find the 64bit version of the libraries in the MinGW installation, causing linker errors.
    • Not sure if this is really required, but I set CMAKE_C_FLAGS and CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS before the project() statement, because in project(), CMake will look for the compiler and retrieve the library locations by introspection. If the -m32 flag is not used by then, CMake may find and use the location of the 64bit libraries, also causing linker errors later on
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Building protobuf with MinGW

Even if the documentation of the project doesn’t mention it, building protobuf with MinGW is easy when using CMake. The CMakeLists.txt is located in the “cmake” subdirectory.

I used following versions:

  • MinGW 7.2.0 (64 bit)
  • CMake 3.12.1
  • Protobuf 3.6.1

Two workarounds are however required with these versions:

Add “-DCMAKE_NO_SYSTEM_FROM_IMPORTED=ON” to the CMake command line to avoid the error:

fatal error: stdlib.h: No such file or directory

See for more information

Also, you will need to apply this patch to cmake/tests.cmake:

# Patch from commit a69dfe63bc26c12fd2786aec9239076997110315
  set_source_files_properties(${tests_files} PROPERTIES COMPILE_FLAGS "-Wno-narrowing")

  # required for tests on MinGW Win64
    set(CMAKE_EXE_LINKER_FLAGS "${CMAKE_EXE_LINKER_FLAGS} -Wl,--stack,16777216")
    set(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} -Wa,-mbig-obj")

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Groovy: cloning nodes in an XML document

It’s pretty easy to clone nodes in a XML document using Groovy once XmlParser is used instead of XmlSlurper:

import groovy.xml.XmlUtil

def original = """
   <book id="sample">

def catalog = new XmlParser().parseText( original )

def sampleBook = { it.@id == "sample" }


3.times {
  def c = sampleBook.clone()
  c.@id = "$it"[0].value = "Author $it"
  c.title[0].value = "Title $it"


println XmlUtil.serialize(catalog)

The result is:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><catalog>
  <book id="0">
    <author>Author 0</author>
    <title>Title 0</title>
  <book id="1">
    <author>Author 1</author>
    <title>Title 1</title>
  <book id="2">
    <author>Author 2</author>
    <title>Title 2</title>


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Apache: undefined symbol: ap_proxy_location_reverse_map

If you get the following error when starting Apache:

apache2: Syntax error on line ...:
Cannot load into server: undefined symbol: ap_proxy_location_reverse_map

…then make sure that mod_proxy is enabled, and that it is loaded BEFORE mod_proxy_http. Apache doesn’t support dependency management of modules, so they have to be enabled in the appropriate order.

You might want to disable the modules and reenable them in the right order with a2enmod, or change the order in for instance /etc/sysconfig/apache2

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VMWare Fusion: the path “” is not valid path to the gcc binary.

A common error installing the VMWare tools in a Ubuntu guest is:

Searching for GCC...
the path "" is not valid path to the gcc binary. 
Would you like to change it? [yes]

In some cases, like when using an older version of Fusion with newer version of Ubuntu, an easy workaround is to use the opensource version of the VMWare tools provided by the distribution:

apt-get install open-vm-tools open-vm-tools-desktop
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PHP not working in Apache virtual hosts

I just had the situation where PHP worked fine from the default/main site configured in Apache, but not in a virtual host. Instead of parsing/executing the PHP script, Apache would rather send its source code back to the browser, which would propose to download it.

I found various potentials solutions online, like:

  • Checking if the PHP module was enabled (it was)
  • Setting “php_admin_flag engine” or “php_admin_value”  to “on” (it didn’t help)

What helped was to enable explicitly the PHP handlers in the Directory section of the corresponding vhosts. On OpenSUSE Leap, the file /etc/apache2/conf.d/php7.conf does exactly that, so I could just include it:

<VirtualHost ...>
        DocumentRoot /some/path
        <Directory /some/path>
                Include /etc/apache2/conf.d/php7.conf
                Options ...
                AllowOverride ...
                Require all granted
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Uploading a file with HTTP PUT in Groovy with Basic Auth


dependencies {
   compile 'org.codehaus.groovy.modules.http-builder:http-builder:0.7.1'
   compile 'org.apache.httpcomponents:httpmime:4.5'


import org.apache.http.client.entity.EntityBuilder
import org.apache.http.util.EntityUtils

class HttpPut {
   File inputFile
   String url
   String username
   String password

   HttpPut withFile(File inputFile) {
       this.inputFile = inputFile
       return this

   HttpPut withUrl(String url) {
       this.url = url
       return this

   HttpPut withCredentials(String username, String password) {
       this.username  = username
       this.password = password
       return this

   void put() {
       def http = new HTTPBuilder(url)

       http.auth.basic(username, password)

       http.request(Method.PUT) { request ->
           request.entity = EntityBuilder.create().setBinary(inputFile.bytes).build()

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Gerrit: robust regular expression to create links from text automatically (commentlink)

When there is a link to a bug tracking ticket in a commit message, and Gerrit is already configured to make links out of ticket numbers automatically, it results in a mess. There is a bug report about this since quite a while already, but no progress yet.

A workaround is to use a lookbehind regular expression, to ignore ticket numbers that are followed by a double quote or


, because they are most likely part of a generated URL.

[commentlink "bugtracking"]
       match = \\b([A-Z0-9]+-\\d+)(?!(\"|))
       link = https://bugtracker/tickets/$1

If you need to troubleshoot this kind of issue: it is very cumbersome to test the regex directly in Gerrit, because you have to modify the config file, stop Gerrit, flush the caches and restart it. Since the regex syntax is the one of Javascript, you can use a tool like Just enter as test string a set of lines you want to match, another set that you don’t want to match, enable the “g” option, and experiment with the regular expression until it works as expected. Then you need only to escape the \ and the ” and put it in the Gerrit config file.

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Notepad++: automatic configuration of tabs vs. spaces

Notepad++ is a great text editor with lots of features out of the box, but I miss particularly one: the ability to use automatically tabs or spaces for indentation according to the content of an existing file when opening it.

Luckily enough, it’s easy to add this feature using the Python scripting plugin.

  • Install the Python scripting add on for Notepad++ with the plugin manager
  • Open C:\Program Files (x86)\Notepad++\plugins\PythonScript\scripts\
  • Append the code below at the bottom of the file
  • Save the file
  • Open Notepad++
  • Choose Plugins -> Python Script -> Configuration
  • Ensure Initialisation is set to ATSTARTUP and save
  • Restart Notepad++
from Npp import *

def indent_auto_detect(arg):
    for i in range(editor.getLineCount()):
        pos = editor.positionFromLine(i)
        indent = editor.getLineIndentPosition(i)-pos
        if indent > 0:
            if ord('\t') == editor.getCharAt(pos):
                console.write("Indentation: Tabs\n")
            elif indent in [2, 3, 4, 8]:
                console.write("Indentation: %d spaces\n" % indent)

notepad.callback(indent_auto_detect, [NOTIFICATION.BUFFERACTIVATED])
notepad.callback(indent_auto_detect, [NOTIFICATION.READY])
console.write("Automatic indentation detection started\n")

The code comes from:

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Configuring Apache to serve multiple domains with a single SSL certificate

Here are some notes on how to configure Apache to server multiple domains with a single SSL certificate. If using a single certificate is not an option, you will have to use SNI, which is not covered in this howto.

# Create root CA
openssl genrsa -out rootCA.key 2048
# Self sign the CA cert
openssl req -x509 -new -nodes -key rootCA.key -sha256 -days 1024 -out rootCA.pem

Create the configuration file of the certificate request for all domains (multi.conf):

distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
req_extensions = v3_req
prompt = no
countryName = XY
stateOrProvinceName = XY
localityName = City
organizationName = My organization
organizationalUnitName = My unit
commonName =
[ v3_req ]
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
subjectAltName = @alt_names
DNS.1 =
DNS.2 =

Be aware that the semantic of the fields in the configuration file changes depending on the value of “prompt”. With “prompt = no”, countryName is the value for the country. Without “prompt”, it set the label that will be displayed when the user is prompted, and a default value can be provided in “countryName_default”. Very confusing…

One of the aliases has to be specified as commonName and again as alternate name, because in some cases only alternate names will be considered.

Now you can create the server key and the corresponding certificate:

openssl genrsa -out multi.key 2048
openssl req -new -out multi.csr -key multi.key -config multi.conf
openssl x509 -req -in multi.csr -CA rootCA.pem -CAkey rootCA.key -CAcreateserial -out multi.crt -days 500 -sha256 -extensions v3_req -extfile multi.conf

Note: the multi.conf file has to be used twice, once to create the request (2nd line), and again to create the certificate (3rd line).

And finally, use it in Apache:

NameVirtualHost *:443
SSLCertificateFile /root/ca/multi.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile /root/ca/multi.key
<VirtualHost *:443>

<VirtualHost *:443>

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