When calling rsync from Windows (e.g. with Cygwin) to sync to Unix, I had the bad surprise that all directories created on the Linux side had the permission 000 (that’s it, no permission at all). After rsync created the top level directory, it would pitifully fail to create any element underneath it (mkdir: permission denied).
The solution is to call it with the chmod option :
$ rsync -rtxv --chmod=ugo=rwX -e ssh localdir/ user@host:/remotedir